T2M International Association for the History of Transport, Traffic and Mobility, 14th T2M Annual Conference 2016 - Mobilities: Space of Flows and Friction

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The dynamic of urban systems; improving city sustainability with insights from Industrial Symbiosis

Last modified: 2016-10-06


In Ecology and Biology, the term of Symbiosis is used to define a close and often long-run interaction between two different biological species. This prolonged association may - but does not necessarily - benefit each member (so we speak about mutual dependence). A symbiotic relationship is part of an ecosystem (different communities of living organisms in aggregation with inorganic components of their environment). Since 1989 (article of Frosch and Gallopoulos published in Scientific American), Industrial complexes have been

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